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Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

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Few novel antibiotics in the pipeline, WHO warns

The World Health Organization has reiterated its warning that there is a serious lack of new antibiotics under development to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance.Only eight of the...

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Plant storage in Neolithic southeast Europe: synthesis of the archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence from Serbia

AbstractThis paper presents and evaluates the archaeobotanical and archaeological evidence of plant product storage from Early and Late Neolithic sites in Serbia, southeast Europe. The commonly stated and widely accepted archaeological evidence of storage in the region includes ceramic pots, clay bins and pits. However, as shown in our study, the archaeobotanical evidence does not always support the interpretation of these structures and objects as plant storage containers, as it is often of secondary origin and composed of discarded plant material such as by-products of plant use. On the other hand, the available botanical record points to some other possible ways of storing plant products, such as in perishable containers that do not normally survive archaeologically in this part of the world. Although limited, the combined evidence indicates variability in plant storage practices and solutions within the cultural phenomena associated with the Neolithic Starčevo and Vinča cultures o…

Cost-effectiveness assessment in outpatient sinonasal surgery

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Author(s): G. Mortuaire, D. Theis, R. Fackeure, D. Chevalier, I. Gengler
AimsTo assess the cost-effectiveness of outpatient sinonasal surgery in terms of clinical efficacy and control of expenses.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2016. Patients scheduled for outpatient sinonasal surgery were systematically included. Clinical data were extracted from surgical and anesthesiology computer files. The cost accounting methods applied in our institution were used to evaluate logistic and technical costs. The standardized hospital fees rating system based on hospital stay and severity in diagnosis-related groups (Groupes homogènes de séjours: GHS) was used to estimate institutional revenue.ResultsOver 2years, 927 outpatient surgical procedures were performed. The crossover rate to conventional hospital admission was 2.9%. In a day-…

Cervical-transoral robotic oropharyngectomy and thin anterolateral thigh free flap

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Author(s): P. Gorphe, S. Temam, F. Kolb, Q. Qassemyar
The transoral robotic oropharyngectomy surgical technique was initially described for resection of small stage T1 or T2 lesions and the surgical defect is usually allowed to heal by secondary intention. We propose a refined surgical approach adapted to more complex situations such as salvage surgery and surgery in an irradiated field, based on previous experience in open approaches for oropharyngeal cancer. Via a combined cervical-transoral approach, we perform en bloc resection of the parapharyngeal space combined with transoral robotic lateral oropharyngectomy. Reconstruction of the surgical defect is performed with a thin anterolateral thigh free flap.



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Cost-effectiveness assessment in outpatient sinonasal surgery

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Author(s): G. Mortuaire, D. Theis, R. Fackeure, D. Chevalier, I. Gengler
AimsTo assess the cost-effectiveness of outpatient sinonasal surgery in terms of clinical efficacy and control of expenses.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted from January 2014 to January 2016. Patients scheduled for outpatient sinonasal surgery were systematically included. Clinical data were extracted from surgical and anesthesiology computer files. The cost accounting methods applied in our institution were used to evaluate logistic and technical costs. The standardized hospital fees rating system based on hospital stay and severity in diagnosis-related groups (Groupes homogènes de séjours: GHS) was used to estimate institutional revenue.ResultsOver 2years, 927 outpatient surgical procedures were performed. The crossover rate to conventional hospital admission was 2.9%. In a day-…

Cervical-transoral robotic oropharyngectomy and thin anterolateral thigh free flap

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
Author(s): P. Gorphe, S. Temam, F. Kolb, Q. Qassemyar
The transoral robotic oropharyngectomy surgical technique was initially described for resection of small stage T1 or T2 lesions and the surgical defect is usually allowed to heal by secondary intention. We propose a refined surgical approach adapted to more complex situations such as salvage surgery and surgery in an irradiated field, based on previous experience in open approaches for oropharyngeal cancer. Via a combined cervical-transoral approach, we perform en bloc resection of the parapharyngeal space combined with transoral robotic lateral oropharyngectomy. Reconstruction of the surgical defect is performed with a thin anterolateral thigh free flap.



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Highly Luminescent Phase-Stable CsPbI3 Perovskite Quantum Dots Achieving Near 100% Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Yield

ACS Nano DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b05442

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Effects of emotion on the acoustic parameters in adults who stutter: An exploratory study

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:Journal of Fluency Disorders
Author(s): Kim R. Bauerly, Jessica Paxton




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The effects of actors vocal exercises for relaxation on fluency: A preliminary study

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:Journal of Fluency Disorders
Author(s): Emily Monteagudo, Jean Sawyer, Alyssa Sivek-Eskra
PurposeTo determine the efficacy of treatment based on Kristin Linklater's technique for vocal preparation for performance for use with people who stutter.MethodA protocol for a treatment for stuttering involving breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and focus on awareness was designed by the first author from Linklater's published exercises in her book Freeing the Natural Voice (2006). Four adults who stutter participated in a 12-week, single-case reversal design study. Treatment efficacy was determined by baseline and post-treatment measures on the OASES, self-report naturalness, tension and severity scale, and percentage of stuttering-like disfluency (SLD). Qualitative measures included a daily tension and practice log, a program completion questionnaire, and accounts from the clinicians administering the treatment prot…

The role of A-kinase anchoring proteins in cancer development

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:Cellular Signalling
Author(s): Erica Reggi, Dario Diviani
Cancer development is a multifactorial process resulting from the aberrant activation of multiple signaling pathways. It has become increasingly clear that the coordination of the signaling events leading to cancer formation and progression is under the control of macromolecular transduction complexes organized by scaffolding proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of scaffolding proteins involved in the spatio-temporal activation of pathways controlling cancer cell proliferation, cell survival, and invasion. Mutations or altered expression of AKAP coding genes results in unregulated signaling associated with oncogenesis, cancer maintenance, and metastasis. This review will focus on recent advances illustrating the role of AKAPs in cancer pathophysiology as well as on their potential as therapeutic targets.



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Cirugía virtual para pacientes con obstrucción nasal: empleo de un software basado en dinámica de fluidos (MeComLand®, Digbody® & Noseland®) para documentar parámetros objetivos de flujo y optimizar resultados quirúrgicos

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Author(s): Manuel A. Burgos, Maria Agustina Sevilla García, Enrique Sanmiguel Rojas, Carlos Del Pino, Carlos Fernández Velez, Francisco Piqueras, Francisco Esteban Ortega
IntroducciónLa dinámica de fluidos computacional (CFD) es una herramienta matemática que permite analizar el flujo aéreo. Presentamos un software innovador basado en CFD para mejorar los resultados de la cirugía nasal.MétodosMediante colaboración de ingenieros especialistas en mecánica de fluidos y otorrinolaringólogos se ha desarrollado un software de fácil uso denominado MeComLand®, que utilizando los cortes de tomografía computarizada de un paciente permite obtener gran cantidad de información como flujo, presiones, temperatura, velocidad o fricción sobre la pared de las fosas nasales. El programa DigBody® permite modificar en 3D la anatomía del modelo y realizar cirugías virtuales para simular resultados antes de la c…

Cirugía virtual para pacientes con obstrucción nasal: empleo de un software basado en dinámica de fluidos (MeComLand®, Digbody® & Noseland®) para documentar parámetros objetivos de flujo y optimizar resultados quirúrgicos

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
Source:Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Author(s): Manuel A. Burgos, Maria Agustina Sevilla García, Enrique Sanmiguel Rojas, Carlos Del Pino, Carlos Fernández Velez, Francisco Piqueras, Francisco Esteban Ortega
IntroducciónLa dinámica de fluidos computacional (CFD) es una herramienta matemática que permite analizar el flujo aéreo. Presentamos un software innovador basado en CFD para mejorar los resultados de la cirugía nasal.MétodosMediante colaboración de ingenieros especialistas en mecánica de fluidos y otorrinolaringólogos se ha desarrollado un software de fácil uso denominado MeComLand®, que utilizando los cortes de tomografía computarizada de un paciente permite obtener gran cantidad de información como flujo, presiones, temperatura, velocidad o fricción sobre la pared de las fosas nasales. El programa DigBody® permite modificar en 3D la anatomía del modelo y realizar cirugías virtuales para simular resultados antes de la c…

New dental practice opens in Fulton

Dr. Jenna Miller, DDS, left, of Cherry Hill Dental, talks at the Fulton office to Marissa Seelignan, office coordinator of the firm's Jefferson City office.

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The relative sensitivity of freshwater species to antimony(III): Implications for water quality guidelines and ecological risk assessments

AbstractAntimony (Sb) is a pollutant in many jurisdictions, yet its threat to aquatic biota is unclear. Water quality guidelines (WQGs) for Sb are not well established and large uncertainty factors are commonly applied in derivation. We constructed freshwater species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for Sb(III) using available acute toxicity data sourced from temperate and tropical regional studies. A tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach using risk quotients (RQs) was applied for characterisation of risks presented by Sb(III) concentrations measured in the freshwater environment. Multiple parametric models were fitted for each SSD, with the optimal model used to derive the 5% hazardous concentration (HC5), defined as protective of 95% of species, and the corresponding predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). The HC5 values for whole and temperate SSDs were estimated at 781 and 976 μg L−1 Sb(III), respectively, while the PNECs for both datasets were 156 and 195 μg L−1 Sb(I…

Mechanical coupling of microtubule-dependent motor teams during peroxisome transport in Drosophila S2 cells

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): María Cecilia De Rossi, Diana E. Wetzler, Lorena Benseñor, María Emilia De Rossi, Mariela Sued, Daniela Rodríguez, Vladimir Gelfand, Luciana Bruno, Valeria Levi
BackgroundIntracellular transport requires molecular motors that step along cytoskeletal filaments actively dragging cargoes through the crowded cytoplasm. Here, we explore the interplay of the opposed polarity motors kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein during peroxisome transport along microtubules in Drosophila S2 cells.MethodsWe used single particle tracking with nanometer accuracy and millisecond time resolution to extract quantitative information on the bidirectional motion of organelles. The transport performance was studied in cells expressing a slow chimeric plus-end directed motor or the kinesin heavy chain. We also analyzed the influence of peroxisomes membrane fluidity in methyl-β-ciclodextrin …

Calcimycin mediates mycobacterial killing by inducing intracellular calcium-regulated autophagy in a P2RX7 dependent manner

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): Shradha Mawatwal, Assirbad Behura, Abhirupa Ghosh, Saqib Kidwai, Abtar Mishra, Amar Deep, Sakshi Agarwal, Sudipto Saha, Ramandeep Singh, Rohan Dhiman
Phenotypic screening led to the identification of calcimycin as a potent inhibitor of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (M. bovis BCG) growth in vitro and in THP-1 cells. In the present study, we aim to decipher the mechanism of antimycobacterial activity of calcimycin. We noticed that treatment with calcimycin led to up-regulation of different autophagy markers like Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7, Atg 3 and enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-I (LC3-I) to LC3-II conversion in macrophages. This calcimycin-mediated killing of intracellular M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG was abrogated in the presence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA). We also demonstrate that calcimycin binding with purinergic recept…

Pyridoxine improves hippocampal cognitive function via increases of serotonin turnover and tyrosine hydroxylase, and its association with CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor pathway

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang
BackgroundIn the present study, we investigated the effects of pyridoxine on hippocampal functions and changes in protein profiles based on the proteomic approach.MethodsEight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline (vehicle) or 350mg/kg pyridoxine twice a day for 21days.ResultsPhosphoglycerate mutase 1 was up-regulated, while CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) was down-regulated, in the pyridoxine-treated group. Additionally, the serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase was increased in the hippocampus of the pyridoxine-treated group than in that of the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, discrimination indices based on the novel object recognition test were significant…

Molecular features and physiological roles of K+-cl− cotransporter 4 (KCC4)

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
Author(s): A.A. Marcoux, A.P. Garneau, R. Frenette-Cotton, S. Slimani, F. Mac-Way, P. Isenring
A K+-Cl− cotransport system was documented for the first time during the mid-seventies in sheep and goat red blood cells. It was then described as a Na+-independent and ouabain-insensitive ion carrier that could be stimulated by cell swelling and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a thiol-reacting agent. Twenty years later, this system was found to be dispensed by four different isoforms in animal cells. The first one was identified in the expressed sequence tag (EST) database by Gillen et al. based on the assumption that it would be homologous to the Na+-dependent K+-Cl− cotransport system for which the molecular identity had already been uncovered. Not long after, the three other isoforms were once again identified in the EST databank. Among those, KCC4 has generated much interest a few…

Predictive Biomarkers for Asthma Therapy

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple phenotypes. Treatment of patients with severe disease can be challenging. Predictive biomarkers are measurable characteristics that reflect the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and can identify patients that are likely to respond to a given therapy. This review discusses current knowledge regarding predictive biomarkers in asthma.Recent FindingsRecent trials evaluating biologic therapies targeting IgE, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-4 have utilized predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit from treatment. Other work has suggested that using composite biomarkers may offer enhanced predictive capabilities in tailoring asthma therapy.SummaryMultiple biomarkers including sputum eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO), and serum periostin have been used to identify which patients will respond to targeted asthma medications. Fur…

Predictive Biomarkers for Asthma Therapy

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAsthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple phenotypes. Treatment of patients with severe disease can be challenging. Predictive biomarkers are measurable characteristics that reflect the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and can identify patients that are likely to respond to a given therapy. This review discusses current knowledge regarding predictive biomarkers in asthma.Recent FindingsRecent trials evaluating biologic therapies targeting IgE, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-4 have utilized predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit from treatment. Other work has suggested that using composite biomarkers may offer enhanced predictive capabilities in tailoring asthma therapy.SummaryMultiple biomarkers including sputum eosinophil count, blood eosinophil count, fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled breath (FeNO), and serum periostin have been used to identify which patients will respond to targeted asthma medications. Fur…

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2006: Behind Resveratrol Stabilization by Carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan: Does the Polyphenol Play a Role in Polymer Structural Organization?

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2006: Behind Resveratrol Stabilization by Carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan: Does the Polyphenol Play a Role in Polymer Structural Organization?International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18092006Authors: Antonio Francioso Simone Dinarelli Marco Girasole Laura Cervoni Maria d'Erme Francesco Mura Alberto Boffi Elita Montanari Luciana MoscaResveratrol stability in solution can be improved by combining the polyphenol with carboxymethylated (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (CM-glucan), a carbohydrate polymer widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism behind this stabilizing effect. The supramolecular structural, physico-chemical and morphological features of the CM-glucan/resveratrol complex have been studied under different physical and chemical stimuli by means of spectroscopic techniques, microscopy and physical methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), spectrofluorimetry, …

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2005: Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.

IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 2005: Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18092005Authors: Mingzhe Sun Bowei Jia Junkai Yang Na Cui Yanming Zhu Xiaoli SunThe PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs genes were located on eleven chromosomes and synteny analysis only revealed nine duplicated pairs within the rice PHD family. Phylogenetic analysis of all OsPHDs and PHDs from other species revealed that they could be grouped into two major clusters. Furthermore, OsPHDs were clustered into eight groups and members from different groups displayed a great divergence in terms of gene structure, functional domains and conserved motifs. W…

Plans to turn former bank into coffee shop and flats submitted

Applicant Fairfield Estate Agents is hoping to demolish the rear part of the existing building at the Lloyds Bank site in St Albans Road , Watford, and erect a four-storey extension above the current listed building. The new development, which lies within the Nascot Conservation Area, is offering just two off-street parking spaces served from a service road, rather than off Langley Road.

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Unraveling the Molecular Requirements for Macroscopic Silk Supercontraction

ACS Nano DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b01532

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Self-Assembled Cu–Sn–S Nanotubes with High (De)Lithiation Performance

ACS Nano DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b05294

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An In-vitro Comparison of Bond Strength of Different Sealers/Obturation Systems to Root Dentin Using Push-out Test at 2 Weeks and 3 Months Post Obturation

Objective: To evaluate the push-out bond strength and failure modes of different sealers/obturation systems to intra-radicular dentin at 2 weeks and 3 months' post obturation compared to AH Plus®/gutta-percha. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty (180) root slices from sixty (60) single-canal anterior teeth were prepared and assigned to 5 experimental groups (n=36 in each group), designated as G1: AH Plus®/Gutta-percha; G2: TotalFill BCTM sealer/BC coated gutta-percha; G3: TotalFill BCTM sealer/gutta-percha; G4: EndoREZ® sealer/EndoREZ® coated gutta-percha and G5: EndoREZ® sealer/gutta-percha. Push-out bond strengths of eighteen (18) root slices in each group were assessed at 2 weeks and the other 18 at 3 months' post obturation using universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Independent t-test was used to compare mean push-out bond strength for each group at 2 weeks and 3 months' interval. Results: The mean push-out bond strengt…

Fasting Spot-urine pH is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in the Japanese Population

Objective: To investigate the relationship between urine pH and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components while controlling for covariates. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 5,430 Japanese subjects (4691 without MetS; 739 with MetS) undergoing health assessments. Partial correlation analysis and analysis of covariance were used for controlling confounding parameters (age, gender, serum uric acid (UA) levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and smoking and drinking statuses). Using multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MetS incidence were calculated across urine pH categories. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between MetS and urine pH. Results: Subjects with MetS had significantly lower urine pH (5.9 ± 0.7) than those without MetS (6.0 ± 0.7) (p 6.0). Conclusion: The MetS and its components were independently associated wit…

Correlation between Foot Arch Index and Intensity of Foot, Knee and Low Back Pain among Pregnant Women in a South Eastern Nigerian community.

Objectives: To assess the arch height index of pregnant women and its correlation with foot pain, anterior knee pain and low back pain. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and fifteen (215) consenting pregnant women participated in this cross-sectional study. Arch height index was assessed from their foot prints while pain intensity was rated on a numerical pain rating scale. Data was summarized with descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation was used to determine correlations between the variables at p0.05) between foot pain and each of the right (r=-0.010, p=0.886) and left (r=0.004, p=0.955) arch indices as well as between knee pain and each of the right (r=0.042, p=0.536) and left (r=0.045, p=0.515) arch indices. A similar trend was observed for the low back which also did not show any significant relationship with each of the right (r=0.026, p=0.703) and left (r=0.097, p=0.157) arch indices. Conclusion: The study participants had a high prevalence of low foot arches, indi…

Title Page/Section Editors

Publication date: November 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1864, Issue 11, Part A





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Metalloproteinases in extracellular vesicles

Publication date: November 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1864, Issue 11, Part A
Author(s): Masayuki Shimoda, Rama Khokha
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as pivotal mediators of intercellular communications in local and distant microenvironments under patho/physiological conditions. EVs contain bioactive materials such as proteins, RNA transcripts, microRNAs and even DNAs, and recent work on their protein profiles has revealed the existence of metalloproteinases including the cell surface-anchored sheddases ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) and soluble ADAMTSs (ADAMs with thrombospondin motifs) as well as cell surface-bound and soluble MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) from various cell types and body fluids. EV-associated metalloproteinases can alter the make-up of EVs by ectodomain shedding, exert a shedding activity after being taken up by target cells, or directly contribute to degradation of extracellular mat…

The role of matrix metalloproteinases in aging: Tissue remodeling and beyond

Publication date: November 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1864, Issue 11, Part A
Author(s): Sandra Freitas-Rodríguez, Alicia R. Folgueras, Carlos López-Otín
Proteases are a set of enzymes that have been involved in multiple biological processes throughout evolution. Among them, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling has emerged as one of the most relevant functions exerted by these proteins, being essential in the regulation of critical events such as embryonic development or tissue homeostasis. Hence, it is not surprising that dysregulation in any protease function that affects ECM homeostasis may contribute to the aging process. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one of the most important families of proteases involved in the tight control of ECM remodeling over time. In this review, we will discuss how MMPs and other proteases alter ECM composition and mechanical properties in aging, thereby affecting stem cell niches and the dev…

Matrix metalloproteinases as regulators of inflammatory processes

Publication date: November 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1864, Issue 11, Part A
Author(s): Barbara Fingleton
Inflammation is a central mechanism for dealing with insults to tissue, either from pathogenic invaders or by other damage-inducing means, such that the threat is removed, the tissue is healed and there is a return to homeostasis. It is a multi-step process with manifold methods of regulation built in. Proteolysis is one such regulatory method and members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteinases have been shown to influence inflammation in myriad of ways. It is becoming more and more clear that no single MMP can be unequivocally labeled as 'good' or 'bad' when considering inflammation in general – the net result of proteolytic activity is dependent on context. Here we provide examples from recent literature, with a focus on in vivo studies, to highlight this concept. This article is part of …

New intracellular activities of matrix metalloproteinases shine in the moonlight

Publication date: November 2017
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, Volume 1864, Issue 11, Part A
Author(s): Parker G. Jobin, Georgina S. Butler, Christopher M. Overall
Adaption of a single protein to perform multiple independent functions facilitates functional plasticity of the proteome allowing a limited number of protein-coding genes to perform a multitude of cellular processes. Multifunctionality is achievable by post-translational modifications and by modulating subcellular localization. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), classically viewed as degraders of the extracellular matrix (ECM) responsible for matrix protein turnover, are more recently recognized as regulators of a range of extracellular bioactive molecules including chemokines, cytokines, and their binders. However, growing evidence has convincingly identified select MMPs in intracellular compartments with unexpected physiological and pathological roles. Intracellular MMPs have both pr…

Risk reduction of long-term major adverse cardiovascular events after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy in palmar hyperhidrosis

AbstractPurposePalmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is excessive sweating of the palms resulting from sympathetic overactivity, and patients who undergo endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) show reduced cardiac demand after 1 year and improved cerebral perfusion within 2–4 weeks. However, the long-term risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following ETS remain unclear.MethodsWe searched the Longitudinal National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan and identified PH patients (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic code 708.8) from the outpatient database and patients who underwent ETS (procedure code 05.29) from the inpatient database between 2000 and 2010; furthermore, we excluded patients younger than 18 years of age or older than 65 years of age. We defined MACE as stroke (diagnostic codes 430–437), myocardial infarction (diagnostic code 410), or death. Patients followed until the first cardiac event or December 31, 2010. Risk…

Mental health services turned down help for 50 000 young people in England last year, report estimates

Children and adolescents in England face barriers when seeking help for mental health problems, with access and waiting times for treatment varying across the country, a report by the think tank the...

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Sixty seconds on . . . the Mohawk tribe

This isn't about some ancient practice touted by a dodgy alternative health guru, is it?No, absolutely not. It's a contemporary tale of a drug manufacturer trying to ensure that its drug stays on...

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Put more trust in the trustworthy and less in the untrustworthy to improve judgement of medicines

The Academy of Medical Sciences recommends involving patients, carers, and the public in research as a means of tackling concerns about the erosion of public trust, overmedication, and conflicts of...

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