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Dibenzoylmethane Protects Against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Activating Nrf2 via JNK, AMPK, and Calcium Signaling

AbstractOxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in various hepatic diseases. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which coordinates the expression of an array of antioxidant and detoxifying genes, has been proposed as a potential target for prevention and treatment of liver disease. Dibenzoylmethane (DBM) is a minor ingredient in licorice that activates Nrf2 and prevents various cancers and oxidative damage. In the present study, the mechanisms by which DBM activates Nrf2 signaling were delineated, and its protective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury was examined. DBM potently induced the expression of HO-1 in cells and in the livers of mice, but this induction was diminished in Nrf2-deficient mice and cells. Overexpression of Nrf2 enhanced DBM-induced HO-1 expression, while overexpression of a dominant-negative fragment of Nrf2 inhibited this induction. DBM treatment resulted in dissociation from Keap1 and nuclear translocation …
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Sonography in diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a case–control study

AbstractPurposeAdhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder has been a diagnosis of exclusion on sonography due to lack of specific diagnostic criteria. This study prospectively assesses the efficacy of sonography using multiple static and dynamic parameters for diagnosis of AC.Materials and methodsShoulder sonography was performed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists on 90 subjects (60 symptomatic and 30 controls). All symptomatic subjects were subjected to an MRI. Based on clinical and MRI diagnosis, three groups were made: AC (n = 30), painful shoulders (PS) (n = 30), and control group (CL) (n = 30). The sonographic parameters studied were: coracohumeral ligament (CHL) thickness, increased soft tissue in rotator interval (static parameters) and restriction of abduction and external rotation on dynamic scanning. These were compared within the three groups and the accuracy of each parameter in isolation and in combination for diagnosis of AC was calculated.ResultsSonographic…

Systematic and quantitative assessment of hydrogen peroxide reactivity with cysteines across human proteomes [Research]

Protein cysteinyl residues are the mediators of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent redox signaling. However, site-specific mapping of the selectivity and dynamics of these redox reactions in cells poses a major analytical challenge. Here we describe a chemoproteomic platform to systematically and quantitatively analyze the reactivity of thousands of cysteines toward H2O2 in human cells. We identified >900 H2O2-sensitive cysteines, which are defined as the H2O2-dependent redoxome. Although redox sites associated with antioxidative and metabolic functions are consistent, most of the H2O2-dependent redoxome varies dramatically between different cells. Structural analyses reveal that H2O2-sensitive cysteines are less conserved than their redox-insensitive counterparts and display distinct sequence motifs, structural features, and potential for crosstalk with lysine modifications. Notably, our chemoproteomic platform also provides an opportunity to predict oxidation-triggered protein co…

Optimum ridge-to-furrow ratio in ridge-furrow mulching systems for improving water conservation in maize ( Zea may L.) production

AbstractWater-saving cultivation techniques have been attracting increased attention worldwide. Ridge-furrow mulching system (RFMS), as a prospective rainwater harvesting system, has been widely adopted in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to compare soil water storage, soil temperature, maize yield, and water use efficiency (WUE) among different ridge/furrow width arrangements in RFMS comprised of three different ridge/furrow ratios, i.e., 40:70 cm (RFMS40), 55:55 cm (RFMS55), and 70:40 cm (RFMS70) and conventional flat planting (CK, without mulching). All these four planting patterns had the same planting density. The RFMS technique not only increased soil temperature of the ridge but also improved soil moisture of the furrow when compared with CK. These positive effects were intensified with increasing ridge/furrow ratio in RFMS. This improvement in RFMS resulted in more stable and earlier seedling establishment. Maize yields were increased…

Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery

AbstractA spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λmax, are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O2/kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respective…

Hyperaccumulating potential of Bidens pilosa L. for Cd and elucidation of its translocation behavior based on cell membrane permeability

AbstractPhytoremediation with the use of hyperaccumulating plant species to remove excess trace metals from contaminated soil and water is considered a cost-effective non-invasive technique. Over 400 plant taxa worldwide have been identified as natural hyperaccumulators, but only very few are reported to hyperaccumulate Cd. Bidens pilosa L. is a newly found, promising Cd hyperaccumulator, although its potential to accumulate Cd and mechanism of this process are not yet well known. This paper was aimed at exploring hyperaccumulation capacity of B. pilosa for Cd, and its translocation behavior related to cell membrane permeability. The highest Cd concentration in shoots of B. pilosa grown in soil was 405.91 mg kg−1 and of that cultured in nutrient solution 1651.68 mg kg−1, indicating very high accumulation potential. Cd concentrations in the root, stem, leaf, and shoot of B. pilosa cultured in nutrient solution were all much higher than those in soil, while biomass development was consi…

Assessment of the availability of As and Pb in soils after in situ stabilization

AbstractThe in situ stabilization has been widely used to remediate metal-contaminated soil. However, the long-term retaining performance of heavy metals and the associated risk after in situ stabilization remains unclear and has evoked amounting concerns. Here, Pb- or As-contaminated soil was stabilized by a commercial amendment. The availability of Pb and As after in situ stabilization were estimated by ten different in vitro chemical extractions and DGT technique. After amendment application, a significant decline in extractable Pb or As was observed in treatments of Milli-Q water, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.1 M NaNO3, 0.05 M (NH4)2SO4, and 0.43 M HOAc. Potential available metal(loid)s determined by DGT also showed remarkable reduction. Meanwhile, the results of in vivo uptake assays demonstrated that Pb concentrations in shoots of ryegrass Lolium perenne L. declined to 12% of the control samples, comparable to the extraction ratio of 0.1 M NaNO3 (15.8%) and 0.05 M (NH4)2SO4 (17.3%). For As-c…

Pharmacogenetic determinants of outcomes on triplet hepatic artery infusion and intravenous cetuximab for liver metastases from colorectal cancer (European trial OPTILIV, NCT00852228)

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Historical Eclipse Fake-Outs

Public memory can be problematic.

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Outbreaks of influenza B infection and pneumococcal pneumonia at a mental health facility in Japan

Publication date: Available online 21 August 2017
Source:Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Author(s): Yoshitaka Yamazaki, Norihiko Goto, Naoya Iwanami, Mineyuki Hama, Noriko Fujiwara, Yuko Takahashi, Maki Sekiguchi, Bin Chang, Munehiro Yamazaki
BackgroundJapan has an aging population and an increasing number of patients who reside in long-term care and mental health facilities. Both pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza B infection outbreaks have been observed in these populations, although no reports have described concurrent outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza B infection in these facilities.Case presentationSix patients and two staffs were initially diagnosed with influenza B infection at a mental health facility on March 14, 2015. By March 21, influenza B infection was diagnosed in 26 patients and 10 staff; all individuals received anti-influenza drugs. On March 19, two patients were diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia, and seven patients had developed pneumoco…

Global Head And Neck Cancer Treatment Market 2021 Analysis by Top Players, Regions & Types - Medgadget (blog)

Global Head And Neck Cancer Treatment Market 2021 Analysis by Top Players, Regions & Types
Medgadget (blog)
The report titled Head And Neck Cancer Treatment Market presents an in-depth synopsis of the competitive landscape of the market globally, thus helping establishments understand the primary threats and prospects that vendors in the market are dealt with.

and more »

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Historical Eclipse Fake-Outs

Public memory can be problematic.

-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com

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Low-calorie pizza and burgers won’t fix our child obesity crisis

The latest push to tackle growing waistlines among England's children is a call to cut calories in junk food. It won't work wonders, warns Tom Sanders

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Zebrafish larvae could be used as 'avatars' to optimize personalized treatment of cancer

Portuguese scientists have for the first time shown that the larvae of a tiny fish could one day become the preferred model for predicting, in advance, the response of human malignant tumours to the various therapeutic drugs used to fight cancer. If the...

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Association between shift work and microalbuminuria: data from KNHANES(2012–2014)

Shift work disturbs workers' biological clocks and this condition can cause various health problems including cardiovascular disease. The elevated albuminuria level has been significantly associated with the r...

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The value of advanced MRI techniques in the assessment of cervical cancer: a review

AbstractObjectivesTo assess the value of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in cervical cancer.MethodsWe searched PubMed and MEDLINE and reviewed articles published from 1990 to 2016 to identify studies that used MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI, to assess parametric invasion, to detect lymph node metastases, tumour subtype and grading, and to detect and predict tumour recurrence.ResultsSeventy-nine studies were included. The additional use of DWI improved the accuracy and sensitivity of the evaluation of parametrial extension. Most studies reported improved detection of nodal metastases. Functional MRI techniques have the potential to assess tumour subtypes and tumour grade differentiation, and they showed additional value in detecting and predicting treatment response. Limitations included a lack of technical standardisation, which limits reproducibility.ConclusionsNe…

Radioanatomic study of the skull base and septum in Asians: implications for using the nasoseptal flap for anterior skull-base reconstruction

BackgroundThe objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of using the nasoseptal flap (NSF) for covering the anterior skull-base defect in Asians, and to compare the results in whites. MethodsA retrospective radioanatomic analysis was conducted in 100 Korean adult patients. Septal and skull-base dimensions were measured and the feasibility of the NSF in reconstructing a full anterior skull-base defect was evaluated. Scans of 49 white patients were analyzed for a comparative study. ResultsAmong various septal dimensions, the length of the septum was significantly different in Koreans when compared to whites. Skull-base dimensions such as anterior skull-base length and width at the level of the anterior ethmoidal artery were different between the 2 ethnic groups. Individual differences between the anterior width of the hypothetical NSF and the anterior margin of the skull-base defect (2.8 ± 3.1 vs 6.4 ± 4.8) and the difference between the hypothetical NSF length and the length o…

Olaparib Now Approved as Maintenance Therapy, and in Tablet Form

The FDA approved olaparib as maintenance therapy for adult patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The agent is also now approved in tablet form. (Source: CancerNetwork)

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US Congress Passes Bill to Accelerate Pediatric Cancer Drug Development

The US Senate passed legislation that would support and help accelerate the development of promising drugs for children with cancer. (Source: CancerNetwork)

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The value of advanced MRI techniques in the assessment of cervical cancer: a review

AbstractObjectivesTo assess the value of new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in cervical cancer.MethodsWe searched PubMed and MEDLINE and reviewed articles published from 1990 to 2016 to identify studies that used MRI techniques, such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI, to assess parametric invasion, to detect lymph node metastases, tumour subtype and grading, and to detect and predict tumour recurrence.ResultsSeventy-nine studies were included. The additional use of DWI improved the accuracy and sensitivity of the evaluation of parametrial extension. Most studies reported improved detection of nodal metastases. Functional MRI techniques have the potential to assess tumour subtypes and tumour grade differentiation, and they showed additional value in detecting and predicting treatment response. Limitations included a lack of technical standardisation, which limits reproducibility.ConclusionsNe…

John Stratton Gatecliff

bmj;358/aug21_7/j3933/FAF1faJohn Stratton Gatecliff spent his childhood in west Yorkshire, living in Ilkley and Cookridge, Leeds. He attended Leeds Grammar School and later was enlisted in the Royal...

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Mylan settles for overcharging in suit brought by EpiPen competitor

The drug company Mylan NV has agreed to pay $465m (£360m; €395m) to settle claims that it overcharged the US social healthcare program Medicaid for its anaphylaxis treatment EpiPen, a portable,...

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A small corner of the intestine is home to high incidence of NF1 mutations, a key driver of GI stromal tumours… https://t.co/0GnXWmXSHY

A small corner of the intestine is home to high incidence of NF1 mutations, a key driver of GI stromal tumours… https://t.co/0GnXWmXSHY

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Low-calorie pizza and burgers won’t fix our child obesity crisis

The latest push to tackle growing waistlines among England's children is a call to cut calories in junk food. It won't work wonders, warns Tom Sanders

from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vhZMIk
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Glucotoxicity promotes aberrant activation and mislocalization of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and metabolic dysfunction in pancreatic islet β-cells: reversal of such metabolic defects by metformin

AbstractEmerging evidence suggests that long-term exposure of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells to hyperglycemic (HG; glucotoxic) conditions promotes oxidative stress, which, in turn, leads to stress kinase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of nuclear structure and integrity and cell apoptosis. Original observations from our laboratory have proposed that Rac1 plays a key regulatory role in the generation of oxidative stress and downstream signaling events culminating in the onset of dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells under the duress of metabolic stress. However, precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the metabolic roles of hyperactive Rac1 remain less understood. Using pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we now report mistargetting of biologically-active Rac1 [GTP-bound conformation] to the nuclear compartment in clonal INS-1 cells, normal rat islets and human islets under HG conditions. Our findings also suggest that such a signaling step i…

X-ray shows blender stuck in woman's hand

An x-ray of a woman's hand made the news recently: The blades of an immersion...
Read more on AuntMinnieEurope.com
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CT scans of car crash survivor go viral


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ESR reaches 70K member milestone

A trypanosomal orthologue of an intermembrane space chaperone has a non-canonical function in biogenesis of the single mitochondrial inner membrane protein translocase

by Christoph Wenger, Silke Oeljeklaus, Bettina Warscheid, André Schneider, Anke Harsman Mitochondrial protein import is essential for Trypanosoma brucei across its life cycle and mediated by membrane-embedded heterooligomeric protein complexes, which mainly consist of trypanosomatid-specific subunits. However, trypanosomes contain orthologues of small Tim chaperones that escort hydrophobic proteins across the intermembrane space. Here we have experimentally analyzed three novel trypanosomal small Tim proteins, one of which contains only an incomplete Cx3C motif. RNAi-mediated ablation of TbERV1 shows that their import, as in other organisms, depends on the MIA pathway. Submitochondrial fractionation combined with immunoprecipitation and BN-PAGE reveals two pools of small Tim proteins: a soluble fraction forming 70 kDa complexes, consistent with hexamers and a second fraction that is tightly associated with the single trypanosomal TIM complex. RNAi-mediated ablation of the three prote…

Dynamics and regulation of nuclear import and nuclear movements of HIV-1 complexes

by Ryan C. Burdick, Krista A. Delviks-Frankenberry, Jianbo Chen, Sanath K. Janaka, Jaya Sastri, Wei-Shau Hu, Vinay K. Pathak The dynamics and regulation of HIV-1 nuclear import and its intranuclear movements after import have not been studied. To elucidate these essential HIV-1 post-entry events, we labeled viral complexes with two fluorescently tagged virion-incorporated proteins (APOBEC3F or integrase), and analyzed the HIV-1 dynamics of nuclear envelope (NE) docking, nuclear import, and intranuclear movements in living cells. We observed that HIV-1 complexes exhibit unusually long NE residence times (1.5±1.6 hrs) compared to most cellular cargos, which are imported into the nuclei within milliseconds. Furthermore, nuclear import requires HIV-1 capsid (CA) and nuclear pore protein Nup358, and results in significant loss of CA, indicating that one of the viral core uncoating steps occurs during nuclear import. Our results showed that the CA-Cyclophilin A interaction regulates the dy…

Transient expression of ZBTB32 in anti-viral CD8+ T cells limits the magnitude of the effector response and the generation of memory

by Hyun Mu Shin, Varun N. Kapoor, Gwanghun Kim, Peng Li, Hang-Rae Kim, M. Suresh, Susan M. Kaech, E. John Wherry, Liisa K. Selin, Warren J. Leonard, Raymond M. Welsh, Leslie J. Berg Virus infections induce CD8+ T cell responses comprised of a large population of terminal effector cells and a smaller subset of long-lived memory cells. The transcription factors regulating the relative expansion versus the long-term survival potential of anti-viral CD8+ T cells are not completely understood. We identified ZBTB32 as a transcription factor that is transiently expressed in effector CD8+ T cells. After acute virus infection, CD8+ T cells deficient in ZBTB32 showed enhanced virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses, and generated increased numbers of virus-specific memory cells; in contrast, persistent expression of ZBTB32 suppressed memory cell formation. The dysregulation of CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of ZBTB32 was catastrophic, as Zbtb32-/- mice succumbed to a systemic viral infectio…

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Two Alternative Models of Maternity Care in Ireland

AbstractBackgroundThe Irish government has committed to expand midwifery-led care alongside consultant-led care nationally, although very little is known about the potential net benefits of this reconfiguration.ObjectivesTo formally compare the costs and benefits of the major models of care in Ireland, with a view to informing priority setting using the contingent valuation technique and cost-benefit analysis.MethodsA marginal payment scale willingness-to-pay question was adopted from an ex ante perspective. 450 pregnant women were invited to participate in the study. Cost estimates were collected primarily, describing the average cost of a package of care. Net benefit estimates were calculated over a 1-year cycle using a third-party payer perspective.ResultsTo avoid midwifery-led care, women were willing to pay €821.13 (95% CI 761.66–1150.41); to avoid consultant-led care, women were willing to pay €795.06 (95% CI 695.51–921.15). The average cost of a package of consultant- and midwi…

Recruitment of Armitage and Yb to a transcript triggers its phased processing into primary piRNAs in Drosophila ovaries

by Radha Raman Pandey, David Homolka, Kuan-Ming Chen, Ravi Sachidanandam, Marie-Odile Fauvarque, Ramesh S. Pillai Small RNAs called PIWI -interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are essential for transposon control and fertility in animals. Primary processing is the small RNA biogenesis pathway that uses long single-stranded RNA precursors to generate millions of individual piRNAs, but the molecular mechanisms that identify a transcript as a precursor are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that artificial tethering of the piRNA biogenesis factor, Armi, to a transcript is sufficient to direct it into primary processing in Drosophila ovaries and in an ovarian cell culture model. In the fly ovarian somatic follicle cells, the transcript becomes cleaved in a stepwise manner, with a 5′→3′ directionality, liberating U1-containing ~24 nt piRNAs that are loaded into Piwi. Although uridines are preferred for generation of piRNA 5′ ends, processing takes place even in their absence, albeit at a lower ef…

Composite likelihood method for inferring local pedigrees

by Amy Ko, Rasmus Nielsen Pedigrees contain information about the genealogical relationships among individuals and are of fundamental importance in many areas of genetic studies. However, pedigrees are often unknown and must be inferred from genetic data. Despite the importance of pedigree inference, existing methods are limited to inferring only close relationships or analyzing a small number of individuals or loci. We present a simulated annealing method for estimating pedigrees in large samples of otherwise seemingly unrelated individuals using genome-wide SNP data. The method supports complex pedigree structures such as polygamous families, multi-generational families, and pedigrees in which many of the member individuals are missing. Computational speed is greatly enhanced by the use of a composite likelihood function which approximates the full likelihood. We validate our method on simulated data and show that it can infer distant relatives more accurately than existing methods…

Crosstalk between the tricarboxylic acid cycle and peptidoglycan synthesis in Caulobacter crescentus through the homeostatic control of α-ketoglutarate

by Irnov Irnov, Zhe Wang, Nicholas D. Jannetty, Julian A. Bustamante, Kyu Y. Rhee, Christine Jacobs-Wagner To achieve robust replication, bacteria must integrate cellular metabolism and cell wall growth. While these two processes have been well characterized, the nature and extent of cross-regulation between them is not well understood. Here, using classical genetics, CRISPRi, metabolomics, transcriptomics and chemical complementation approaches, we show that a loss of the master regulator Hfq in Caulobacter crescentus alters central metabolism and results in cell shape defects in a nutrient-dependent manner. We demonstrate that the cell morphology phenotype in the hfq deletion mutant is attributable to a disruption of α-ketoglutarate (KG) homeostasis. In addition to serving as a key intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, KG is a by-product of an enzymatic reaction required for the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a major component of the bacterial cell wall. Accumulation of …

HSPB7 prevents cardiac conduction system defect through maintaining intercalated disc integrity

by Wern-Chir Liao, Liang-Yi Juo, Yen-Ling Shih, Yen-Hui Chen, Yu-Ting Yan HSPB7 is a member of the small heat-shock protein (HSPB) family and is expressed in the cardiomyocytes from cardiogenesis onwards. A dramatic increase in HSPB7 is detected in the heart and blood plasma immediately after myocardial infarction. Additionally, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms of HSPB7 have been identified to be associated with heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy in human patients. Although a recent study has shown that HSPB7 is required for maintaining myofiber structure in skeletal muscle, its molecular and physiological functions in the heart remain unclear. In the present study, we generated a cardiac-specific inducible HSPB7 knockout mouse and demonstrated that the loss of HSPB7 in cardiomyocytes results in rapid heart failure and sudden death. The electrocardiogram showed cardiac arrhythmia with abnormal conduction in the HSPB7 mutant mice before death. In HSPB7 CKO cardiomyocytes, n…