Μετάβαση στο κύριο περιεχόμενο

! # Ola via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

Heterotopic Purkinje Cells: a Comparative Postmortem Study of Essential Tremor and Spinocerebellar Ataxias 1, 2, 3, and 6

Abstract

Essential tremor (ET) is among the most common neurological diseases. Postmortem studies have noted a series of pathological changes in the ET cerebellum. Heterotopic Purkinje cells (PCs) are those whose cell body is mis-localized in the molecular layer. In neurodegenerative settings, these are viewed as a marker of the progression of neuronal degeneration. We (1) quantify heterotopias in ET cases vs. controls, (2) compare ET cases to other cerebellar degenerative conditions (spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, and 6), (3) compare these SCAs to one another, and (4) assess heterotopia within the context of associated PC loss in each disease. Heterotopic PCs were quantified using a standard LH&E-stained section of the neocerebellum. Counts were normalized to PC layer length (n-heterotopia count). It is also valuable to consider PC counts when assessing heterotopia, as loss of PCs extends both to normally located as well as heterotopic PCs. Therefore, we divided n-heterotopias by PC counts. There were 96 brains (43 ET, 31 SCA [12 SCA1, 7 SCA2, 7 SCA3, 5 SCA6], and 22 controls). The median number of n-heterotopias in ET cases was two times higher than that of the controls (2.6 vs. 1.2, p < 0.05). The median number of n-heterotopias in the various SCAs formed a spectrum, with counts being highest in SCA3 and SCA1. In analyses that factored in PC counts, ET had a median n-heterotopia/Purkinje cell count that was three times higher than the controls (0.35 vs. 0.13, p < 0.01), and SCA1 and SCA2 had counts that were 5.5 and 11 times higher than the controls (respective p < 0.001). The median n-heterotopia/PC count in ET was between that of the controls and the SCAs. Similarly, the median PC count in ET was between that of the controls and the SCAs; the one exception was SCA3, in which the PC population is well known to be preserved. Heterotopia is a disease-associated feature of ET. In comparison, several of the SCAs evidenced even more marked heterotopia, although a spectrum existed across the SCAs. The median n-heterotopia/PC count and median PC in ET was between that of the controls and the SCAs; hence, in this regard, ET could represent an intermediate state or a less advanced state of spinocerebellar atrophy.



from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vhQ3Dc
via IFTTT

Σχόλια

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις από αυτό το ιστολόγιο

Development of anticancer agents targeting the Hedgehog signaling

AbstractHedgehog signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway which is essential in embryonic and postnatal development as well as adult organ homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of Hedgehog signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. Consequently, substantial efforts have made in the past to develop potential therapeutic agents that specifically target the Hedgehog signaling for cancer treatment. Here, we review the therapeutic agents for inhibition of the Hedgehog signaling and their clinical advances in cancer treatment.

from # All Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tthGvd
via IFTTT

Accessory Auricles: Systematic Review of Definition, Associated Conditions, and Recommendations for Clinical Practice

Abstract Accessory auricles are rare congenital abnormalities embryologically derived from the first branchial arch. Presentation may be variable with locations grouped into anatomical zones based on the frequency of location found in the literature. This study reviewed the papers between 1981 and 2017. Findings included an association with syndromes including Goldenhar, VACTERL, Treacher–Collins, Townes–Brocks, and Wolf–Hirschhorn. Based on histological and embryological evidence, the term "accessory auricle" is best used as an umbrella term to define this difference. Finally, indications are provided for imaging and laboratory investigations to guide the physician treating patients with accessory auricles. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mark S. Lloyd, MPhil, FRCS(Plast), Department of Plastic Surgery, Autologous Ear Reconstruction Service, Birmingham Children's and Women's Hospital NHS Trust, 4th Floor, Ladywood House, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham B4…

A Rare Complication After Septoplasty: Visual Loss Due to Right Retinal Artery Spasm

Abstract Septoplasty is a commonly used procedure for correcting septal cartilage deformities. Hemorrhage, abscesses, scaling, adhesions, and scar tissue are often seen after the operation of the septoplasty, but temporary or permanent visual loss due to local anesthetic use has been reported very rarely in the literature. The authors also aimed to present a female patient with retinal artery spasm in the right eye after septoplasty in this article. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to the authors' clinic with long-standing nasal obstruction and postnasal drip. There was no feature in her history and also no sign other than nasal septal deviation on physical examination. The patient was informed about the operation and the operation was planned. Emergency eye consultation was requested after the patient said that the right eye of the patient had never seen in the postoperative wake-up hall. Examination by an ophthalmologist; mild exotropia and total loss of vision in the r…